Hydroponic Growing Media: Beginner’s Guide


Grow Generation Editorial 

When you’re growing hydroponically, you need to use growing media to support the plants and hold the nutrient solution. There are many types of hydroponic growing media available on the market, but which one is right for you? In this article, we will discuss all the different types of hydroponic growing media and how they work in the hydroponic ecosystem. We’ll also give you some tips on choosing the right media for your needs.

What is hydroponic growing media and why do you need it?

Every garden needs a solid support system to ensure that the plants can grow tall and strong. In hydroponics, this support system comes in the form of hydroponic growing media. The hydroponic media you choose will play a critical role in the success of your hydroponic garden as it provides a base for the roots to get the oxygen and nutrients they need to grow. Because most growing mediums are porous, they also help to aerate the roots and prevent them from becoming waterlogged.

Other benefits of growing media include:

  • Stabilizing pH levels: Some hydroponic media can help to stabilize pH levels in the root zone, which is important for optimal plant growth.
  • Improving drainage: Good drainage is essential in hydroponics as it prevents waterlogging and allows oxygen to reach the roots.
  • Controlling temperature: Some hydroponic media can help to regulate the temperature of the root zone, which is important for optimal plant growth.

What makes a good growing medium?

Not every material can be used as hydroponic growing media. The ideal hydroponic medium should meet the following criteria:

Come from an organic source and be biodegradable: This ensures that the medium is free of chemicals and toxins that can harm your plants or the environment.

  • Eco-friendly: If not biodegradable, the medium should be reusable or recyclable.
  • Be sterile/inert: The hydroponic medium should be free of pathogens and pests that can infect your plants.
  • Have a neutral pH: The hydroponic medium should have a neutral pH so that it doesn’t affect the pH of the nutrient solution.
  • Be lightweight: The hydroponic medium should be light enough so that it doesn’t weigh down the plant or the hydroponic system.
  • Have good drainage: The hydroponic medium should have good drainage so that water can easily move through it and oxygen can reach the roots.

However, it’s important to note that some media are not necessarily physical support, such as air.

Now that we’ve gone over what hydroponic growing media is and what makes a good medium let’s look at the different types of hydroponic media available on the market.

Different Types of Hydroponic Growing Media

There are many different types of hydroponic growing media available on the market, but they all serve the same basic purpose: to support the plants and hold the nutrient solution. The type of hydroponic media you choose will depend on your specific needs and the type of hydroponic system you are using.


Though it may seem counterintuitive, air can actually be used as a hydroponic growing media. The roots of the plants are suspended in the air, and they receive their nutrients and water primarily from a mist or fog created by an air pump.

Air media systems are typically used for small, delicate plants that cannot tolerate having their roots submerged in water. It’s also ideal for use in vertical hydroponic systems where weight is a concern. Moreover, because the roots are constantly exposed to oxygen, plants grown in air media systems typically have a higher rate of growth than those grown in other types of hydroponic systems.

Air Stone

Air stones are small, porous stones that are used in hydroponic systems to provide aeration to the roots of plants. The stones are typically made of ceramic or stone, and they are connected to an air pump via air tubing.

As the air pump runs, it forces air through the air stone, creating bubbles. The bubbles help to oxygenate the water and promote healthy root growth. In addition, the bubbles can also help to circulate nutrients and prevent stagnation. We suggest products such as the Active Aqua Air Stone.

Best systems for air stones: Any but especially DWC, Ebb and flow, NFT


As a plentiful and inexpensive hydroponic media, sand is a popular choice for beginner growers. The small, uniform particles of sand provide good drainage and aeration to the roots of plants.

Though easy to wash and rinse it can be difficult to reuse sand once it has been mixed with other media in a hydroponic system. When mixed with other substrates it tends to dramatically improve drainage.  In addition, sand can be heavy, making it impractical for use in some types of hydroponic systems.

Best systems for sand: Ebb and flow, wick


For growers looking for an affordable and easy-to-use hydroponic media, gravel is a good option. Like sand, the small, uniform particles of gravel provide good drainage and aeration. And, unlike other organic materials, gravel doesn’t break down over time, meaning it can be reused for multiple growing cycles.

The only downside to gravel is its low water retention rate and is challenging to clean and sterilize. Therefore, it’s important to start with a clean batch when setting up a new hydroponic system.

Best systems for gravel: Any, especially DWC and Ebb and flow

Smart Gravel

A new twist on an old hydroponic media, Arqlite smart gravel is made of 100% recycled and discarded plastics. Every piece is cleaned and treated to ensure it is safe for use in hydroponic systems. It replaces mineral gravel and similar hydroponic media and offers a dust-free, pH-neutral, and sterile growing environment.

Best systems for smart gravel: Any, especially DWC and Ebb and flow.


Pumice is a lightweight, porous hydroponic media made from volcanic rock. It’s an excellent choice for hydroponic systems as it provides easy drainage and aeration. In addition, pumice has a high water retention rate, helps control moisture levels, and acts as a natural insulator.

Best systems for pumice: Drip, Ebb and Flow


One of the most common hydroponic media, perlite, is a lightweight, porous material made from volcanic glass. Produced from rapidly cooled lava, perlite is sterile and pH neutral. It’s an excellent hydroponic media as it provides good drainage and aeration while also retaining moisture and nutrients.

Take it a step further and mix perlite with other growing mediums to create a custom hydroponic media blend. We suggest using Grow!t Perlite, as it’s a very versatile medium.

Best systems for perlite: Drip, Ebb and Flow, NFT


A lesser-known hydroponic media, sawdust, is a by-product of woodworking. It’s an excellent hydroponic media as it’s absorbent, allowing it to hold water and nutrients. Additionally, it’s a biodegradable medium containing beneficial organic material, such as lignin and cellulose. However, it may also be contaminated with potentially harmful microorganisms and fungi, as well as insects and diseases. so, you must sterilize it before using it in a hydroponic system.

Moreover, it’s essential to know what kind of wood the sawdust is made from, as some woods have been treated with chemicals that can be harmful to plants and humans. The best types of wood for hydroponic sawdust are pine, spruce, and fir.

Best systems for sawdust: Deep water culture, Ebb and flow, Wick.

Coco Coir

Made from the fibrous material between a coconut’s inner flesh and outer shell, coconut coir, or coco peat, is a widely used hydroponic growing media. Not only does it have good water retention properties, but it is also environmentally friendly and renewable. It contains natural polymers that encourage beneficial bacteria growth, which is optimal for root health and is hormone and fungus free. Additionally, the coir offers a water-holding capacity that is second only to peat moss. Another big plus: it’s very easy to use!

Our favorite coco coir products are Char Coir 100% RHP Certified Coco CoirChubby Buddha 100% Coco, and CANNA Coco.

Best systems for coco coir: DWC, Drip, Ebb and flow, NFT


A well-known hydroponic growing media, rockwool is a faithful standby for many growers. It’s made from spun Basalt rock into long thing fibers and compressed into a cube. The rockwool cube is an excellent insulator, allowing for proper drainage and aeration while still holding in water and nutrients well. Not to mention it’s sterile with microbe immunity. Our favorite is Vidawool, as it offers both slabs and plugs for growing!

Unfortunately, most of its natural pH is high and can alter a nutrient solution. Moreover, disposing of it is not easy as it doesn’t break down in the environment, so be sure to have a plan for that before using rockwool in your hydroponic system.

Best systems for rockwool: Drip, Ebb and Flow, NFT


Growstones are manufactured, lightweight hydroponic media made from recycled glass. They are similar to perlite in that they provide good drainage and aeration while also retaining moisture and nutrients. One of the benefits of growstones is their high surface area, which is ideal for beneficial bacteria growth. Likewise, it’s unique in that it holds equal parts water and air.

As a bonus, when agitated, growstones releases silica into the solution, which is beneficial to overall plant health and a defensive method against certain pests and illnesses.

Best systems for growstones: Drip, Ebb and Flow

Peat Moss

Peat moss is a popular hydroponic media because it’s able to hold a large amount of water and nutrients while still allowing for proper drainage and aeration. It’s also environmentally friendly and renewable. It’s made from the dead fibrous material that naturally develops in peat bogs. The sphagnum moss and other decomposing organisms compact into dark matter.

It contains not only plenty of healthy bacteria but also natural plant growth hormones. It quickly rehydrates compared to other materials, which means it creates less compaction and is more durable. However, the natural process takes many years, so it’s not the most sustainable media.

Best systems for peat moss: Generally, all

Rice Hulls

Rice hulls are the hard, protective casing that encases a grain of rice. They’re a byproduct of the milling process and are usually thrown away. However, they make for excellent hydroponic media! They’re extremely lightweight and provide good drainage and aeration while still holding in nutrients and moisture.

The one downside to rice hulls is they decay quickly, so they need to be replaced more often than other media.

Best systems for rice hulls: NFT, DWC

Starter Plugs

Starter plugs are small, banded hydroponic media that come in a variety of materials. The most common type is made from coco coir, but they can also be made from peat moss or vermiculite. They’re usually used to start seeds or clones and then transferred to a larger media.

Many starter plugs come pre-treated with a variety of nutrients, making them a complete growing solution. Additionally, they have high water retention rates and can absorb and release moisture quickly – ideal for first-time hydroponic gardeners. Try the VidaWool or Grodan PRO A-OK Starter Plug.

Best systems for starter plugs: Generally, all


Vermiculite is a lightweight, absorbent media made from mica. It swells when wet and supplies good drainage and aeration while still holding in moisture and nutrients. Vermiculite also contains potassium, magnesium, calcium, and other essential plant nutrients. In addition to being non-toxic and sterile, it has a nearly neutral pH.

Best systems for vermiculite: Ebb & Flow, Drip

Oasis Cube

Oasis cubes are gardening foam blocks made of Phenolic or Floral Foam, specifically designed for hydroponic gardening. This type of foam is versatile because it is porous and allows water and air to pass through while still being made of a water-soluble polymer that can hold and release nutrients to plants as needed. Our recommended product is Oasis Rootcubes.

However, it’s not organic or sustainable, and it’s not as structurally sound as other media, so it needs to be replaced more often.

Best systems for oasis cube: NFT, Ebb and Flow, Drip

Wood Chips

Wood chips are an excellent source of carbon for your plants and also help to improve drainage and aeration. They’re usually made from bark, sawdust, or other wood waste products. Wood chips are a sustainable media because they’re a byproduct of the lumber industry.

Just as with sawdust, ensure the wood chips you’re using are from untreated wood to avoid introducing toxins into your system.

Best systems for wood chips: Drip, NFT, Ebb and Flow.

Mineral Wool

Mineral wool is a manufactured media made from melted minerals. It’s spun into a fibrous material that looks similar to cotton candy. Mineral wool is an excellent medium for hydroponic gardens because it holds water and nutrients well while aiding in drainage and aeration.

Best systems for mineral wool: Drip, Ebb & Flow

Expanded Clay Pellets

Expanded clay aggregate pellets are composed of heated clay pebbles that have expanded. These tiny, round pellets have a large amount of porosity and can retain a lot of water due to their high permeability. They’re also lightweight and non-toxic, making them an appealing alternative for those wanting to go green.

Not only do they have a low nutrient content and are pH balanced, but their shape and porousness help them hold the perfect oxygen-to-water balance. This means you don’t have to worry about drying or drowning the roots. Try out the Geolite clay pebbles!

Best systems for clay pellets: Ebb & Flow, DWC, NFT

How to Choose the Right Hydroponic Growing Media for Your Needs

Choosing your grow media is a key step in successful hydroponic gardening. To select the best media for your needs, it is important to consider what type of hydroponic system you are using, what plants you are growing, how much space you have, and your budget.

The most common types of hydroponic systems are Deep Water Culture (DWC), Nutrient Film Technique (NFT), Drip, and Ebb and Flow. Each system has different media requirements, so it is important to select a media that is compatible with your system.

For example:
DWC systems need a media that can support the roots of the plants while supplying good drainage and aeration. A common media used in DWC systems is expanded clay pellets. NFT systems, on the other hand, need a media that can hold nutrients and water while also providing good drainage. A common media used in NFT systems is sawdust.

When selecting a media, consider what plants you are growing. Some plants have specific media requirements that must be met in order for the plant to thrive.

For example:
Plants that require a lot of water will need a medium with good water retention properties. Plants that require little water will need a media with good drainage properties.

Once you have considered what type of system you are using and what plants you are growing, you can narrow down your options and select the best media for your needs.

Tips on Using Growing Media Properly

Once you have selected the best media for your needs, it is important to use it correctly. Incorrect use of media can lead to problems such as root rot, nutrient deficiencies, and pests.

Here are some tips on using hydroponic media correctly:

  • It is important to prepare your hydro media before using it in a hydroponic system. This involves rinsing the media and soaking it in water for 24 hours if necessary. This will help to remove any dust or debris that may be present.
  • After soaking, the media should be drained and allowed to air dry for 24 hours. Once dry, the media is ready to use.
  • It is important to store your media in a cool, dry place. Media that is stored in humid or wet conditions can develop mold or mildew.
  • When planting in a hydroponic system, it is important to plant the roots into the media, not the stem. This will prevent the plant from toppling over and prevent the roots from drying out.
  • When transplanting plants, it is important to handle the roots carefully. Rough handling can damage the roots and lead to problems such as stunted growth or root rot.
  • Handling media can be messy, so it is important to wear gloves, protective glasses and a dust mask to avoid getting media on your skin or in your lungs.
  • It is important to flush your system regularly to prevent mineral buildup, especially with media that has a high cation exchange capacity (CEC).

With these tips, you will be sure to use hydroponic media correctly and get the most out of your plants.

Hydroponic Growing Media FAQs

Still have questions about hydroponic growing media? Here are some answers to frequently asked questions.

What is the best hydroponic growing medium?

There is no one “best” hydroponic growing medium. The best medium for your needs depends on factors such as what type of system you are using and what plants you are growing.

What is the difference between hydroponic media and soil?

Hydroponic media is any material that can be used to support plant roots in a water-based system. Soil is a natural medium that contains minerals, organic matter, water, and air.

Can I use hydroponic media more than once?

Yes, you can reuse hydroponic media. However, it is important to sterilize the media before using it again to prevent the spread of disease. If you used any kinds of hormones during flowering you must rinse them out or they may interfere with your next crop.

Do I need to sterilize hydroponic media before using it?

Yes! It is important to sterilize hydroponic media before using it in a system. This will kill any harmful bacteria or fungi that may be present.

Sterilizing media can be done by boiling it in water for 30 minutes or soaking it in a 2% bleach solution for 24 hours. After sterilizing, the media should be rinsed thoroughly.

Grow Generation Growing Media & Containers

Hydroponic growing media is a key component in hydroponic gardening. Without it, plants would not have anything to support them, and the hydroponic nutrient solution would simply drain away. However, it’s important to choose the right hydroponic growing media for your plants. Research and plan ahead to make sure you use the best possible media for your hydroponic setup.

Once you’re ready, browse our wide selection of growing media, grow containers, and more. We offer the largest selection in the country, so you’re bound to find your favorite brands and products for your indoor garden. Visit our website or stop by one of our stores to learn more!

Grow Generation Editorial 


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